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jennifer jackson, veronica vanoza, kimberley conrad, kari kennel, susie owens, eloiser broady, diana lee, emily arth, terri lynn doss, helle michaelsen, laura richmond, shannon long, pie reyes, kata kärkkäinen, kitten navidad, bouncing boobs, Gabrielle, brunettes, blondes, redhead, dark, vixens, russ meyer, erotic art, adult disney, milo manara, serpieri.Ulya I Lexivia Zusana Drabinova Wifey Krystal Webb Tommi Jo Jodie Dart Jenny McClain Holly Henderson Evelin Aubert Adrienn Bratha Andrea Simom Lucy Doll Lily Labeau Eliza Jane Missy Martinez Dominika Jandlova Carol Goldnerova Chikita Cikita Cristiana Bertasi Awa Ashley Bulgari Andrea VangelAmy Monus Alexa Varga Adrienn Levai Emily Shaw Bridget B Jordan Pryce Winona Vicky Stevie Nici Dee Maria Mareeva Loraine Leslie Lena Love Laura Vivien Czene Kirstin Kendra Justyna Juliette Grace Gloria Ella Mai Daria Cybulska Dana Harem Corinne Antonia Claudia Charley Atwell Brigitte Brigitta Kakuk Bettina Büti Alisa Sas Agnes Dani Dare Bella Ink 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Alexander Michelle McLaughlin Sandra Nilsson Olivia Austin Katerina Hartlova Cathy Heaven Dolly Fox Alyssa Lynn Tiffany Tyler Summer Brielle Lucy Zara Michelle Thorne Eugena Washington Rachel Harris Ana Cheri Garcia Monica Sims Dominique Jane Kayla Rae Reid Kaylia Cassandra Alexandra Tyler Chelsie Aryn Kayslee Collins Brittny Ward Katie Thornton Anal Teen Time Big Cocks Big Black Dicks Elizabeth Ostrander Maggie May Dani Mathers Ross Van Monfort Kristen Nicole Lucy Li Hope Dworaczyk Dasha Astafieva Ashley Hobbs Shera Bechard Olivia Paige Francesca Frigo Shanna Marie McLaughlin Kassie Lyn Logsdon Kyra Milan Romi Rain Joselyn Cano Jasmine Jae Amber Sym Katarina Olendzskaia Mary Helen Danniella Levy Tahlia Paris Laurie Wood Fawna Maclaren Tommie Jo Brandi Brandt Alana Soares Debi Johnson Liz Stewart Patty Duffek Justine Greiner Dream Dolls Creations Leigh Darby Rosario Dawson Crystal Harris Adrianna Meehan Emesha Gabor Keylee Parker Krystal Lorrie Laya Bella Natalina Marie June Mack Shay Fox Karen Fischer Laurie Jo Fetter Gia Genivieve Mariam Micol Mariana Cordoba Kimber James Foxy Angel Ana Tranny Mancini Shemale Tessa Fowler Talia Shepard Sophie Dee Sisicole Scarlett Eastland Sarah Young Katarina Milfait Gemma Massey Sara Randall Claudia Marie Maggie Green Maggie Bliss Retro Ree Petra Lucy V Malene Espensen Video Jayd Lovely Yvette Nelson Fernanda Ferrari Eva Angelina Dana Harem Dana Hamm Dana A Bridget B Breanne Benson Belen Lavallen Barbie Murdock Jana Defi Aruba Jasmine Heather Gates Hitchhikers Hourglass Alpine Peaks Susann Quinn Koloski Gerda Emily Scott Emily Alexander Denise Richards Echo Valley Alexis Love Joyce Gibson Lucie Wilde Abella Anderson Lilly Roma Claire Sinclair Christina Hendricks Irish McCalla Chica Girl & Congas Girls & Pianos Girls & Saxophones Girl & Trumpet Girls & Strings Caylian Curtis Cate Blanchett Catherine Bell Casey Kamara Capri Cavanni Becca Bali Tiffany Brookes Sara Stone Sadie West Madelyn Marie Gabrielle Gucci Echo Valley Diamond Foxxx Charmane Star Barbie Cummings Audrey Bitoni Ashlynn Brooke Amy Andersen Armie Field Nipples Brea Lynn Kristi Curiali Charly Chase Connie Carter Danielle Derek Dalene Kurtis Katie Banks Josephine Eva Tundi Horvath Chantelle Fontain Cheyenne Hunter Ava Adams Dahlia Dark September Carrino Sha Rizel Sexy Venera Michelle McLaren Danielle Riley Sammy Brady Nadia Presnova Marie Claude Bourbonnais Gigi Destiny Davis Clanddi Jinkcego Anna Song Coco Austin Cancice Cardinele Brandy Robbins Jordan Carver Ashley Kahsaklahwee Alice Goodwin Bailey Kline Amber Smith Angel Eyes Asians 3-D Kelley Thompson Lindsey Gayle Evans Kimberly Phillips Karissa Kristina Shannon Candice Cassidy Karen Velez Petra Verkaik Renée Tenison Karen Foster Karin Mirjam Breeschooten Gianna Amore Tawnni Cable Monique Noel Jennifer Jackson Veronica Vanoza Kimberley Conrad Kari Kennel Susie Owens Eloise Broady Diana Lee Emily Arth Terri Lynn Doss Helle Michaelsen Laura Richmond Shannon Long Pia Reyes Kata Kärkkäinen Kitten Navidad Fuck Blow 6 Bouncing boobs Lesbians Blow 5 Madelynn Marie Veronica Zemanova Boobs ASS Jessica Rabbit Jessica Jaymes Jenna Jameson Redhead Barbi Twins Barbie Griffin Sophia Loren Traci Adell Lilly Roma ,3-D Alpen Anal Ass Asian Bath Baywatch,,Big Black Dick Big Cock Bikini Blond Blow Boobs Bouncing Brunette Cartoon Classic Congas Cum Dark Dildo Disney Dream Dolls Erotic Art Fakes Flash'em Friends Fuck Guitars Hitchhikers Hourglass Latina Lesbian Nipples Piano Playboy Redhead Retro Russ Meyer Saxophone Shemale Strings Teen Time Trump Trumpet Pet Twins Video Vixens Wall 3-D Alpen Anal Ass Asian Bath Baywatch Big Black Dick Big Cock Bikini Blond Blow Boobs Bouncing Brunette Cartoon Classic Congas Cum Dark Dildo Disney Dream Dolls Erotic Art Fakes Flash'em Friends Fuck Guitars Hitchhikers Hourglass Latina Lesbian Nipples Piano Playboy Redhead Retro Russ Meyer Saxophones Shemale Strings Teen Time Trumpet Twins Video Vixens Wall Internet pornography is any pornography that is accessible over the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups. The availability of widespread public access to the World Wide Web in 1991 led to the growth of Internet pornography. A 2015 study finds "a big jump" in pornography viewing over the past few decades, with the largest increase occurring between people born in the 1970s and those born in the 1980s. While the study's authors note this increase is "smaller than conventional wisdom might predict," it's still quite significant. Children born in the 1980s onward are also the first to grow up in a world where they have access to the Internet beginning in their teenage years, and this early exposure and access to Internet pornography may be the primary driver of the increase.Before the World Wide Web. Pornography is regarded by some as one of the driving forces behind the expansion of the World Wide Web, like the camcorder VCR and cable television before it. Pornographic images had been transmitted over the Internet as ASCII porn but to send images over network needed computers with graphics capability and also higher network bandwidth. This was possible in the late '80s and early '90s through the use of anonymous FTP servers and through the Gopher protocol. At this time the internet was mainly an academic and military network and there was not widespread use of the internet. One of the early Gopher/FTP sites was at tudelft and was called the Digital Archive on the 17th Floor (List of websites founded before 1995). This small image archive contained some low quality scanned pornographic images that were initially available to anyone anonymously, but the site soon became restricted to Netherlands only access. Usenet Groups. Usenet newsgroups provided an early way of sharing images over the narrow bandwidth available in the early 1990s. Because of the network restrictions of the time, images had to be encoded as ascii text and then broken into sections before being posted to the Alt.binaries of the usenet. These files could then be downloaded and then reassembled before being decoded back to an image. Automated software such as Aub (Assemble Usenet Binaries) allowed the automatic download and assembly of the images from a newsgroup. There was a rapid growth in the number of posts in the early 1990s but image quality was restricted by the size of files that could be posted. The method was also used to disseminate pornographic images, which were scanned from adult magazines. This type of distribution was generally free (apart from fees for Internet access), and provided a great deal of anonymity. The anonymity made it safe and easy to ignore copyright restrictions, as well as protecting the identity of uploaders and downloaders. Around this time frame, pornography was also distributed via pornographic Bulletin Board Systems such as Rusty n Edie's. These BBSes could charge users for access, leading to the first commercial online pornography. A 1995 article in The Georgetown Law Journal titled "Marketing Pornography on the Information Superhighway: A Survey of 917,410 Images, Description, Short Stories and Animations Downloaded 8.5 Million Times by Consumers in Over 2000 Cities in Forty Countries, Provinces and Territories" by a Carnegie Mellon University graduate student claimed, among other things, that (as of 1994) 83.5% of the images on Usenet newsgroups where images were stored were pornographic in nature. Before publication, Philip Elmer-DeWitt used the research in a Time Magazine article, "On a Screen Near You: Cyberporn." findings were attacked by journalists and civil liberties advocates who insisted the findings were seriously flawed. "Rimm's implication that he might be able to determine 'the percentage of all images available on the Usenet that are pornographic on any given day' was sheer fantasy" wrote Mike Godwin in HotWired. The research was cited during a session of U.S. Congress. The student changed his name and disappeared from public view. Godwin recounts the episode in "Fighting a Cyberporn Panic" in his book Cyber Rights: Defending Free Speech in the Digital Age. The invention of the World Wide Web spurred both commercial and non-commercial distribution of pornography. The rise of pornography websites offering photos, video clips and streaming media including live webcam access allowed greater access to pornography. On the Web, there are both commercial and free pornography sites. The bandwidth usage of a pornography site is relatively high, and the income a free site can earn through advertising may not be sufficient to cover the costs of that bandwidth. One recent entry into the free pornography website market are Thumbnail gallery post sites. These are free websites that post links to commercial sites, providing a sampling of the commercial site in the form of thumbnail images, or in the form of Free Hosted Galleries—samplings of full-sized content provided and hosted by the commercial sites to promote their site. Some free websites primarily serve as portals by keeping up-to-date indexes of these smaller sampler sites. These intents to create directories about adult content and websites were followed by the creation of adult wikis where the user can contribute their knowledge and recommend quality resources and links. When a user purchases a subscription to a commercial site after clicking through from a free thumbnail gallery site, the commercial site makes a payment to the owner of the free site. There are several forms of sites delivering adult content. TGP .The most common form of adult content is a categorized list (more often it's a table) of small pictures (called "thumbnails") linked to galleries. These sites are called a Thumbnail gallery post (TGP). As a rule, these sites sort thumbs by category and type of content available on a linked gallery. Sites containing thumbs that lead to galleries with video content are called MGP (Movie Gallery Post). The main benefit of TGP/MGP is that the surfer can get a first impression of the content provided by a gallery without actually visiting it. The most abusive form of TGP is the so-called CJ (abbreviation for circlejerk), that contains links that mislead the surfer to sites he or she actually didn't wish to see. This is also called a redirect.Linklists. Linklists unlike TGP/MGP sites do not display a huge amount of pictures. A linklist is a (frequently) categorised web list of links to so called "freesites*", but unlike TGPs, links are provided in a form of text, not thumbs. It's still a question which form is more descriptive to a surfer, but many webmasters cite a trend that thumbs are much more productive, and simplify searching. On the other hand, LinkLists have a larger amount of unique text, so that helps them to improve their positions in search engine listings. TopLists are linklists whose internal ranking of freesites is based on incoming traffic from those freesites, except that freesites designed for TopLists have many more galleries. Usenet. Another free source of pornography on the Internet are the Usenet newsgroups that were the first home to such material. Newsgroups tend to be poorly organized and flooded with content that is off-topic or spam. Commercial software and websites are available that allow browsing the images or videos on newsgroups, sometimes with galleries of thumbnail images. Peer-to-peer file sharing networks provide another form of free access to pornography. While such networks have been associated largely with the illegal sharing of copyrighted music and movies, the sharing of pornography has also been a popular use for file sharing. Many commercial sites have recognized this trend and have begun distributing free samples of their content on peer-to-peer networks. Men and women viewers. As of 2011 the majority of viewers of online pornography were men; women tended to prefer romance novels and erotic fan fiction. Women comprised about one quarter to one third of visitors to popular pornography websites, but were only 2% of subscribers to pay sites. Subscribers with female names were flagged as signs of potential credit card fraud, because "so many of these charges result in an angry wife or mother demanding a refund for the misuse of her card. Internet pornography formats. Image files. Pornographic images may be either scanned into the computer from photographs or magazines, produced with a digital camera, or a frame from a video before being uploading onto a pornographic website. The JPEG format is one of the most common format for these images. Another format is GIF which may provide an animated image where the people in the picture move. It often lasts for only a second or two then reruns (repeats) indefinitely. If the position of the objects in the last frame is about the same as the first frame, there is the illusion of continuous action. Video files and streaming video. Pornographic video clips may be distributed in a number of formats, including MPEG, WMV, and QuickTime. More recently VCD and DVD image files allow distribution of whole VCDs and DVDs. Many commercial porn sites exist that allow one to view pornographic streaming video. Recently (mid-2006), some Internet pornography sites have begun offering High Definition Video content in WMV HD format. Since mid-2006, advertising-supported free pornographic video hosting service websites based on the YouTube concept have appeared. Referred to as Porn 2.0, these sites generally use Flash technology to distribute videos that were uploaded by users; these include user-generated content as well as scenes from commercial porn movies and advertising clips from pornographic websites. Another format of adult content that emerged with the advent of the Internet is live webcams. Webcam content can generally be divided into two categories: group shows offered to members of an adult paysite, and 1-on-1 private sessions usually sold on a pay-per-view basis. Currently the most popular video format for streaming live webcams is Flash Video FLV. Server-based webcam sex shows spur unique international economics: adult models in various countries perform live webcam shows and chat for clients in affluent countries. This kind of activity is sometimes mediated by companies which will set up websites and manage finances. They may maintain "office" space for the models to perform from, or they provide the interface for models to work at home, with their own computer with webcam. Other formats include text and audio files. While pornographic and erotic stories, distributed as text files, web pages, and via message boards and newsgroups, have been semi-popular, audio porn, via formats like MP3 and FLV, have seen only very limited distribution. Audio porn can include recordings of people having sex or reading erotic stories. Pornographic magazines are available in Zinio format, which provides a reader program to enable access. Combination formats, such as webteases that consist of images and text have also emerged. The Internet is an international network and there are currently no international laws regulating pornography; each country deals with Internet pornography differently. Generally, in the United States, if the act depicted in the pornographic content is legal in the jurisdiction that it is being distributed from then the distributor of such content would not be in violation of the law regardless of whether it is accessible in countries where it is illegal. This does not apply to those who access the pornography, however, as they could still be prosecuted under local laws in their country. Due to enforcement problems in anti-pornography laws over the Internet, countries that prohibit or heavily restrict access to pornography have taken other approaches to limit access by their citizens, such as employing content filters. Many activists and politicians have expressed concern over the easy availability of Internet pornography, especially to minors. This has led to a variety of attempts to restrict children's access to Internet pornography such as the 1996 Communications Decency Act in the United States. Some companies use an Adult Verification System (AVS) to deny access to pornography by minors. However, most Adult Verification Systems charge fees that are substantially higher than the actual costs of any verification they do (for example, in excess of $10/month) and are really part of a revenue collection scheme where sites encourage users to sign up for an AVS system, and get a percentage of the proceeds in return.In response to concerns with regard to children accessing age-inappropriate content, the adult industry, through the Association of Sites Advocating Child Protection (ASACP), began a self-labeling initiative called the Restricted to Adults label (RTA). This label is recognized by many web filtering products and is entirely free to use. Most employers have distinct policies against the accessing of any kind of online pornographic material from company computers, in addition to which some have also installed comprehensive filters and logging software in their local computer networks. One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography. Because of this, most Internet pornography websites based in the U.S. have a notice on their front page that they comply with 18 USC Section 2257, which requires the keeping of records regarding the age of the people depicted in photographs, along with displaying the Name of the company record keeper. Some site operators outside the U.S. have begun to include this compliance statement on their websites as well. On April 8, 2008 Evil Angel and its owner John Stagliano were charged in federal court with multiple counts of obscenity. One count was for, "using an interactive computer service to display an obscene movie trailer in a manner available to a person under 18 years of age. Pornography (often abbreviated to porn or porno in informal language) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the purpose of sexual arousal. Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books, magazines, postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, writing, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors or porn stars, who perform in pornographic films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in a porn film may also be called a model. Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual nature immoral, addictive, and noxious, labeling them pornographic, and attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity and other laws, with varying degrees of success. Such works have also often been subject to censorship and other legal restraints to publication, display, or possession. Such grounds, and even the definition of pornography, have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts. Social attitudes towards the discussion and presentation of sexuality have become more tolerant and legal definitions of obscenity have become more limited, notably beginning in 1969 with Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States, and the subsequent Golden Age of Porn, leading to an industry for the production and consumption of pornography in the latter half of the 20th century. The introduction of home video and the Internet saw a boom in the worldwide porn industry that generates billions of dollars annually. Commercialized pornography accounts for over US$2.5 billion in the United States alone, including the production of various media and associated products and services. This industry employs thousands of performers along with support and production staff. It is also followed by dedicated industry publications and trade groups as well as the mainstream press, private organizations (watchdog groups), government agencies, and political organizations. More recently, sites such as Pornhub, RedTube, and YouPorn have served as repositories for home-made or semi-professional pornography, made available free by its creators (who could be called exhibitionists). It has presented a significant challenge to the commercial pornographic film industry. Irrespective of the legal or social view of pornography, it has been used in a number of contexts. It is used, for example, at fertility clinics to stimulate sperm donors. Some couples use pornography at times for variety and to create a sexual interest or as part of foreplay. There is also some evidence that pornography can be used to treat voyeurism. Etymology. The word is similar to the Modern Greek πορνογραφία (pornographia), which derives from the Greek words πόρνη (pornē "prostitute" and πορνεία porneia "prostitution", and γράφειν (graphein "to write or to record", derived meaning "illustration", cf. "graph"), and the suffix -ία (-ia, meaning "state of", "property of", or "place of"), thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution". No date is known for the first use of the word in Greek; the earliest attested, most related word one could find in Greek, is πορνογράφος, pornographos, i.e. "someone writing of harlots", in the Deipnosophists of Athenaeus. The Modern Greek word pornographia is a translation of the French pornographie. "Pornographie" was in use in the French language during the 1800s. The word did not enter the English language as the familiar word until 1857 or as a French import in New Orleans in 1842. Depictions of a sexual nature are older than civilization as depictions such as the venus figurines and rock art have existed since prehistoric times. When large-scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper-class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children, and the working classes. Fanny Hill (1748) is considered "the first original English prose pornography, and the first pornography to use the form of the novel." It is an erotic novel by John Cleland first published in England as Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. It is one of the most prosecuted and banned books in history. The authors were charged with "corrupting the King's subjects." The world's first law criminalizing pornography was the English Obscene Publications Act 1857 enacted at the urging of the Society for the Suppression of Vice. The Act, which applied to the United Kingdom and Ireland, made the sale of obscene material a statutory offence, giving the courts power to seize and destroy offending material. The American equivalent was the Comstock Act of 1873 which made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail. The English Act did not apply to Scotland, where the common law continued to apply. However, neither the English nor the United States Act defined what constituted "obscene", leaving this for the courts to determine. Prior to the English Act, the publication of obscene material was treated as a common law misdemeanour and effectively prosecuting authors and publishers was difficult even in cases where the material was clearly intended as pornography. Although nineteenth-century legislation eventually outlawed the publication, retail, and trafficking of certain writings and images regarded as pornographic and would order the destruction of shop and warehouse stock meant for sale, the private possession of and viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until the twentieth century. The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite the fact of their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery were common throughout history. Pornographic film production commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture in 1895. Two of the earliest pioneers were Eugène Pirou and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner directed the earliest surviving pornographic film for Pirou under the trade name "Léar". The 1896 film Le Coucher de la Mariée showed Louise Willy performing a striptease. Pirou's film inspired a genre of risqué French films showing women disrobing and other filmmakers realised profits could be made from such films. Sexually explicit films opened producers and distributors to prosecution. Those that were made were produced illicitly by amateurs starting in the 1920s, primarily in France and the United States. Processing the film was risky as was their distribution. Distribution was strictly private. In 1969, Denmark became the first country to abolish censorship, thereby decriminalizing pornography, which led to an explosion in investment and of commercially produced pornography. However, it continued to be banned in other countries, and had to be smuggled in, where it was sold "under the counter" or (sometimes) shown in "members only" cinema clubs. Nonetheless, and also in 1969, Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, was the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States. The film was a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn and, according to Warhol, a major influence in the making of Last Tango in Paris, an internationally controversial erotic drama film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue Movie was made. The scholarly study of pornography, notably in cultural studies, is limited, perhaps due to the controversy about the topic in feminism. The first peer-reviewed academic journal about the study of pornography, Porn Studies, was published in 2014 . Classification. Pornography is often distinguished from erotica, which consists of the portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on feelings and emotions, while pornography involves the depiction of acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions. Pornography is generally classified as either softcore or hardcore. A pornographic work is characterized as hardcore if it has any hardcore content, no matter how small. Both forms of pornography generally contain nudity. Softcore pornography generally contains nudity or partial nudity in sexually suggestive situations, but without explicit sexual activity, sexual penetration or "extreme" fetishism, while hardcore pornography may contain graphic sexual activity and visible penetration, including unsimulated sex scenes. Subgenres. Main article: List of pornographic subgenres. Pornography encompasses a wide variety of genres. Pornography featuring heterosexual acts composes the bulk of pornography and is "centred and invisible", marking the industry as heteronormative. However, a substantial portion of pornography is not normative, featuring more nonconventional forms of scenarios and sexual activity such as "'fat' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by women, queer porn, BDSM, and body modification.". Pornography can be classified according to the physical characteristics of the participants, fetish, sexual orientation, etc., as well as the types of sexual activity featured. Reality and voyeur pornography, animated videos, and legally prohibited acts also influence the classification of pornography. Pornography may fall into more than one genre. The genres of pornography are based on the type of activity featured and the category of participants, for example: Alt porn. Amateur pornography. Ethnic pornography. Fetish pornography. Group sex. Reality pornography. Sexual-orientation-based pornography. Straight porn (unless otherwise stated this is assumed in this article). Gay pornography. Lesbian pornography. Bisexual pornography. Commercialism. Economics. Main article: Sex industry. Revenues of the adult industry in the United States are difficult to determine. In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of hardcore pornography in the United States was no more than $10 million. In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online "adult content" industry estimating $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. As an unsourced aside, the Forrester study speculated on an industry-wide aggregate figure of $8–10 billion, which was repeated out of context in many news stories, after being published in Eric Schlosser's book on the American black market. Studies in 2001 put the total (including video, pay-per-view, Internet and magazines) between $2.6 billion and $3.9 billion. As of 2014, the porn industry was believed to bring in more than $13 billion on a yearly basis in the United States. CNBC has estimated that pornography was a $13 billion industry in the USA, with $3,075 being spent on porn every second and a new porn video being produced every 39 minutes. A significant amount of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley, which has been a pioneering region for producing adult films since the 1970s, and has since become home for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of pornography. The pornography industry has been considered influential in deciding format wars in media, including being a factor in the VHS vs. Betamax format war (the videotape format war) and in the Blu-ray vs. HD DVD format war (the high-def format war). Non-commercial pornography. In addition to the porn industry, there is a large amount of non-commercial pornography. This should be distinguished from commercial pornography falsely marketed as featuring "amateurs". Technology. Advancement. Pornographers have taken advantage of each technological advance in the production and distribution of pornography. They have used lithographs, the printing press, and photography. Pornography is considered a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion), to satellite TV, other forms of video, and the Internet. With the invention of tiny cameras and wireless equipments voyeur pornography is gaining ground. Mobile cameras are used to capture pornographic photos or videos, and forwarded as MMS, a practice known as sexting. Computer-generated images and manipulations. Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering. Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game. 3D pornography. Due to the popularity of 3D blockbusters in theaters such as Avatar and How to Train Your Dragon, companies are now looking to shoot pornography movies in 3D. The first case of this occurred in Hong Kong, when a group of filmmakers filmed 3D Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy released in April 2011. Production and distribution by region. Main article: Pornography by region. The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy. In the United States, the sex film industry is centered in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. In Europe, Budapest is regarded as the industry center. Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution, of adult material is of great concern to the industry, the subject of litigation, and formalized anti-piracy efforts.
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